Notes and Selected Citations

Timeline

ixAuthor interview with Michael de Adder, October 2019.

Introduction

3Paul Waters, “Three more flee Cowansville jail,” Montreal Gazette, 19 April 1973, 1.
4Quote attributed to Martin Scorsese. Neil Genzlinger.“Director’s satiric comedies took long road to acclaim.” Obit of Robert Downey Sr, Globe and Mail, 9 July 2021, B16.
5Author interview with Anthony Jenkins, September 2019.
5George D. Lawrence, Montreal Herald, 26 February 1912. In an Ottawa 3–2 overtime victory against Montreal in 1911–12, reports noted that after Henri Dallaire “got a toss [a check] that laid him out,” teammate Jack Laviolette “carried him shoulder high off the battlefield.” 
6Matthew Diffee. Hand Drawn Jokes for Smart Attractive People, cover.
6Eddie Campbell, The Goat Getters, Jack Johnson, The Fight of the Century, and How a Bunch of Raucous Cartoonists Reinvented Comics, 7.
6Victor S. Navasky, The Art of Controversy: Political Cartoons and their Enduring Power, 33.
6Ibid, 45.

Chapter 1

8Author interview with Brian Gable, September 2019.
9–10Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 149.
10Author interview with Bruce MacKinnon, September 2019.
11Author interview with Tim Dolighan, September 2019.
11One of several quotes used by Gary Bettman on hockey’s fans being the best fans in sports.
11Eric Whitehead, Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend, 22.
11Ibid., 70.
11Author interview with Tim Dolighan, September 2019.
13J. W. Fitsell, Hockey’s Captains, Colonels & Kings, 55–57.
13Kevin Shea and John Jason Wilson, Lord Stanley: The Man Behind the Cup, 361. 
18“Winnipeg Team Won,” Montreal Daily Star, 13 February 1900.
18A. H. Beaton, “Some Observations on Hockey,” Canadian Magazine, March 1902, 435.
18Eddie Campbell, The Goat Getters, Jack Johnson, The Fight of the Century, and How a Bunch of Raucous Cartoonists Reinvented Comics, 84.
18Ibid., 88.
18Ibid., 88–89.
19Ibid., 104.
19“Popular Cartoonist, George Lawrence Dies,” Montreal Herald, 15 October 1948.
20“Ross and M’Giffin [sic] Fined,” The Globe, 19 February 1915, 10.
20“The Police Arrest M’Giffin [sic] and Ross,” The Globe, 18 February 1915, 9.
21“Wanderers, In Fine Condition, Won Out,” Montreal Daily Star, 27 January 1908.
22J. W. Bengough, A Caricature History of Canadian Politics, edition 1974, Introduction by Doug Fetherling, vi.
22“Hockey, Canada’s Great Winter Sport,” Toronto Sunday World, 21 January 1912, 1.
28–29 Len Norris, 14th Annual Collection of Norris: 101 Cartoons from the Vancouver Sun, Introduction by Bruce Hutchison, 1965.
29Author interview with Aislin, September 2019.

Chapter 2

30Eric Whitehead, Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend, 21.
31“Hockey Fanatics Wait Hours in Cold and Snow for Tickets,” winnipegfalcons.com, 1920s.
32Andrew C. Holman, Canada’s Game Hockey and Identity, cited in “Between a Puck and a Showpiece,” Richard Harrison, 153.
32“Many Fainted in Ottawa,” Montreal Daily Star, 4 March 1907.
32“Wanderers Beaten When Victory was in their Grasp,” Montreal Daily Star, 12 February 1905, 2.
32“Winnipeg Team Won,” Montreal Daily Star, 13 February 1900. 
32“Wanderers Beaten When Victory was in their Grasp,” Montreal Daily Star, 12 February 1905, 2.
32Sprague Cleghorn with Frederick Edwards, “It’s a Tough Game,” Maclean’s, 1 December 1934, 15. 
32“Ottawa’s Test!,” Ottawa Free Press, 11 January 1908.   
32Frederick B. Edwards, “High Hat Hockey,” Maclean’s, 15 December 1927, 5.
34Eric Whitehead, Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend, 40.
34Andrew C. Holman, Canada’s Game Hockey and Identity, cited in “Between a Puck and a Showpiece,” Richard Harrison, 153.
34Ibid., 153.
34Stacy L. Lorenz and Geraint B. Osborne, “‘Talk About Strenuous Hockey’: Violence, Manhood, and the 1907 Ottawa Silver Seven–Montreal Wanderer Rivalry,” Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Winter 2006, 149. 
34Austen Lake, “Sports Parade,” “A Short Analysis of Eddie Shore and his Kind,” Boston Evening American, 14 December 1933. Similar quote to Lake’s “The bad boys of any sport are always the ones with the greatest customer pull.” 
34Stacy L. Lorenz and Geraint B. Osborne, “‘Talk About Strenuous Hockey’: Violence, Manhood, and the 1907 Ottawa Silver Seven–Montreal Wanderer Rivalry,” Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Winter 2006, 126. From a David Seglins quote. Seglins “argues that from the game’s beginnings to today, ‘violent forms of hockey have been tolerated, legitimized, ritualized and at times celebrated by players, fans, organizers, commentators and the Canadian state’ (1995, 41)”.
34The Tragically Hip, lyrics to “Thompson Girl.” Robert Baker, Gordon Downie, Johnny Fay, Joseph Paul Langlois, Robert Gordon Sinclair.
35Eric Whitehead, Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend, 30
36Charles Chamberlin, “Antics of Hockey Fans Stirs Chicago Ice-cleaner’s Wonder,” Montreal Gazette, 19 January 1944, 6.
36C. Michael Hiam, Eddie Shore and that Old Time Hockey, 174.
38“Greatest Hockey Riot Even Seen, Staged At Mt. Royal Arena Last Night, When Wrought–up Crowd Yelled For Referee Marsh’s Blood,” Montreal Daily Star, 8 March 1923, 22.
38–9Ibid.
38–9Officials often faced their share of abuse. When obliged, referee Lou Marsh would escape arenas through rear windows, still laced in his skates. After a 7 March 1923, game Montreal police reinforcements were called in to cordon off a mob baying at Marsh’s door with “blood in their eyes” and chants of “kill him.” Marsh left by taxi under police escort. 
39D. A. L. MacDonald, “Maroons Win from Leafs 4–1 Win to Bring Back Stanley Cup,” Montreal Gazette, 10 April 1935, 14.
39Marc. T. McNeil, “Maroons Thrill to First Stanley Cup in Nine Years,” Montreal Gazette, 10 April 1935, 14.
39Eric Whitehead, Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend, 52.
40“The Shamrocks Won,” Montreal Daily Star, 6 March 1900, 2. 
40“The National Hockey Association, The Swashbuckling Roots of the NHL’s Immediate Predecessor.” hockeycentral.co.uk, cited in Toronto Telegram, 14 March 1907.
40Scott Young, War On Ice: Canada in International Hockey, 24.
40–1“Triumph for Trail,” Globe and Mail, 13 March 1961, 6.
41John Chi–Kit Wong, Coast to Coast: Hockey in Canada to the Second World War, cited in “Chinook Country Hockey: The Emergence of Hockey in Pre–Second World War Southern Alberta,” Robert S. Kossuth, 217.
41Ibid., 207.
41Author interview with Bruce MacKinnon, September 2019.
41Robert Tychkowski, “Edmonton Oilers Players Stunned by News of Humboldt Broncos Bus Tragedy,” Edmonton Sun, 7 April 2018.
41Dave Bidini, “Hockey and Humboldt: What holds us together, and what keeps us moving,” Globe and Mail, 12 April 2018.
41Andrew Russell, “Powerful Cartoon Resonates with Canadians Following Humboldt Broncos Tragedy,” Global News, 11 April 2018.
41“Wanderers Beaten When Victory was in their Grasp,” Montreal Daily Star, 12 February 1905, 2.
41Charles L. Coleman, The Trail of the Stanley Cup, Vol. 1, 609.
41Edward Cavell and Dennis Reid, When Winter Was King: The Image of Winter in 19th Century Canada, 23.
41Emily Waugh, “The language of the land,” Globe and Mail, 2 July 2022, O3.
42Dave Bidini, “Hockey and Humboldt: What Holds Us Together, And What Keeps Us Moving,” Globe and Mail, 12 April 2018.
42–3 “Our Winter Sports,” Manitoba Morning Free Press, 13 February 1896.
43Morley Callaghan. “The Game That Makes a Nation,” cited in Riding on the Roar of the Crowd: A Hockey Anthology, edited by David Gowdey, 1989, 50–52.
43Stephen Leacock, Canada, The Foundations of Its Future, 185–186.
43Ibid., 205.
44Roy MacGregor, “The world juniors mean even more this year,” Globe and Mail, 24 December 2021, B13 
44“The Winnipeg Falcons Hockey Club,” winnipegfalcons.com, cited in “The Road to Victory.”  
44Gene Walz, Cartoon Charlie: The Life and Art of Animation Pioneer Charles Thorson, 1998.
46C. Michael Hiam, Eddie Shore and that Old Time Hockey, 4.
46Dave Holland, Canada On Ice: The World Hockey Championships 1920–2008, 43.
47C. Michael Hiam, Eddie Shore and That Old Time Hockey, 73.
47Stephen Cole, quote by Hugh MacLennan, The Best of Hockey Night in Canada, 2.
47Lawrence Scanlan, Grace Under Fire, 7.
47Author interview with Malcolm Mayes, October 2019.
49Tommy Munns, “Scanning the Sports Field,” “Should Canada Enter Future Olympiads?,” The Globe, 18 February 1936, 6.
49Bruce Dowbiggin, The Stick, 167.
49Al Purdy, “Hockey Players,” hockeyinsociety.com,  cited in line “And how do the players feel about it this combination of ballet and murder?”
49Pierre LeBrun, “History Lesson,” Calgary Sun, 10 September 2004, 1. 

Chapter 3

54George V. Higgins, Cogan’s Trade, 1974.
55“Professional Hockey Magnates Prodigals with Salaries,” Montreal Daily Star, 4 January 1905.
56“Sporting Comment,” Ottawa Journal, 16 January 1912, 4.
56–8 Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 58.
59Eric Zweig, Art Ross: The Hockey Legend Who Built the Bruins, 93. Cited in New Liskeard Leader, 5 February 1909.
59“International Hockey Wanted,” Montreal Daily Star, 28 February 1910, 5.
62J. Andrew Ross, Joining the Clubs: The Business of the National Hockey League to 1945, 138.
63Ibid., 134.
63–4Ibid., 138.
64Author interview with Anthony Jenkins, October 2019. 
65J. Andrew Ross, Joining the Clubs: The Business of the National Hockey League to 1945, 139.
65Ibid., 91.
65“Thrills and Spills in the Hockey Rink,” The Literary Digest, 12 January 1929, 56.
66Andy O’Brien, “Canada Outscored Them 88–3,” Montreal Star (Weekend Magazine Vol. 10 No. 9), 29 February 1960. In 1924, promoter Tex Rickard announced that he wanted to sign every member of the Toronto Granites “to represent New York in the National Hockey League.”
67While Hamilton hasn’t seen another NHL franchise since the Tigers, there have been one-off games, including when Toronto hosted the Florida Panthers in Hamilton on 23 March 1994 (1-1 tie). The Heritage Classic between Buffalo and Toronto was played outdoors in Hamilton on 13 March 2022. Buffalo won 5-2.
68Trent Frayne, The Mad Men of Hockey, 63.
69Charles H. Good, “Will U.S. Cash Cripple Our Hockey?,” Maclean’s, 1 March 1926, 13.
69J. Andrew Ross, Joining the Clubs: The Business of the National Hockey League to 1945, 139.
69Charles H. Good, “Will U.S. Cash Cripple Our Hockey?,” Maclean’s, 1 March 1926, 13.
70“Pooled Receipts in Hockey Urged,” New York Times, 17 January 1937, 77.
70Trent Frayne, The Mad Men of Hockey, 111.
70Ibid., 119.
70Frederic McLaughlin was one American owner who didn’t believe in the notion that “You can’t develop hockeyists where you have to depend on artificial ice.” His 1938 champion Chicago Black Hawks iced a record eight US-born players. 
71Dan Parker, “The Hockey Rebellion,” Sports Illustrated, 28 October 1957.
71“President Calder is Anxious to See Capital Pro Team,” Ottawa Journal, 18 February 1929, 1, 14. 
71Morey Holzman and Joseph Nieforth, Deceptions and Doublecross: How the NHL Conquered Hockey, 332–333.
73J. Andrew Ross, Joining the Club: The Business of the National Hockey League to 1945, 236.

Chapter 4

74Michael McKinley, Hockey Night in Canada: A Legacy in Three Periods, 98.
75Dan Parker, “The Hockey Rebellion,” Sports Illustrated, 28 October 1957.
75David Cruise and Alison Griffiths, Net Worth: Exploding the Myths of Pro Hockey, 41.
75Kelly McParland, The Lives of Conn Smythe: From the Battlefield to Maple Leaf Gardens: A Hockey Icon’s Story, 275.
75Lou Skuce’s athleticism, dating to his days playing hockey in Winnipeg and rugby football in Ottawa, sharpened his artist’s eye to sketch richly detailed illustrations. Skuce drew Charlie Conacher smiling for a 1929 Gardens program cover, but on the ice Conacher was “a hunter,” said Frank Selke Sr. “His interest lies solely in the kill.” The 1932 O’Keefe coasters by Lou Skuce (page 75) were once advertised as “A cartoon history of the world’s star hockey players on blotters.” 
75David Cruise and Alison Griffiths, Net Worth: Exploding the Myths of Pro Hockey, 137.
76Ibid., 41.
76Ibid., 38.
77–8Kelly McParland, The Lives of Conn Smythe: From the Battlefield to Maple Leaf Gardens: A Hockey Icon’s Story, 88. Cited in Foster Hewitt, Down the Ice: Hockey Contacts and Reflections, 8.
78“Canadiens’ Selke Tells City: Fight Like Hell for NHL Berth,” Vancouver Sun, 21 February 1966, 1.
78–9Jay Greenberg, “Expanding Universe, Sixty Moments that Changed the Game,” The Hockey News, 138.
79David Cruise and Alison Griffiths, Net Worth: Exploding the Myths of Pro Hockey, 140.
79Michael Traikos, “Long journey into Knights ends as Vegas has a full NHL roster,” Montreal Gazette, 22 June 2017, B3.
80Russ Conway, Game Misconduct: Alan Eagleson and the Corruption of Hockey, 21.
80Bobby Orr, Orr My Story, 203.
80Russ Conway, Game Misconduct: Alan Eagleson and the Corruption of Hockey, 233–236.
80Ibid., 18.
80Ibid., 21.
81Ibid., 18.
81Ibid., 33.
82David Cruise and Alison Griffiths, Net Worth: Exploding the Myths of Pro Hockey, 255.
83Murray Greig, Big Bucks and Blue Pucks, 30.
83Ibid., 13.
84Allen Abel, “When Hell Froze Over,” Sports Illustrated, 6 April 1998.
84Jonathan Gatehouse, The Instigator: How Gary Bettman Remade the League and Changed the Game Forever, 6, 181.
84Ibid., 76–77.
84Gil Stein was NHL president for one year (1992–1993) between John Ziegler and Gary Bettman.
84In cartoonist Peter Kuch’s view, how could hockey be Canada’s game after Canadian NHL teams butt-ended the Winnipeg Jets’ chances of becoming an NHL franchise with their anti-merger strategy in 1978? Kuch like his daily grind: “Name one other job in the world where a fellow can sit down and get so much venom out of his system in a few hours.”  
85Stephen Whyno, “Bettman Proud of Thriving NHL,” Montreal Gazette, 4 October 2014, D1.
85Author interview with Susan Dewar, October 2019.
86–7Jonathan Gatehouse, The Instigator: How Gary Bettman Remade the League and Changed the Game Forever, 27.
87Ibid., 76.
87Ibid., 30. Cited in “Bettman’s NHL era begins: ‘Everything is under review.’” Bob McKenzie, Toronto Star, 1 February 1993, D1.
87Ibid., 28.
88Ibid., 31.
88Eddie Campbell, The Goat Getters, Jack Johnson, The Fight of the Century, and How a Bunch of Raucous Cartoonists Reinvented Comics, 9.
88Author interview with Anthony Jenkins, October 2019.
90Jonathan Gatehouse, The Instigator: How Gary Bettman Remade the League and Changed the Game Forever, 135.
90Ibid., 139.
91Mark MacKinnon, “This Proposal is Dead,” Globe and Mail, 22 January 2000, A1.
91“Bye–bye, hockey; hello, real life,” Globe and Mail, 22 January 2000, A20. 
91Author interview with John Larter, October 2019.
92Len Norris, Norris 101 Cartoons, 17th Annual Collection, Introduction by Allan Fotheringham, 1968. 
92Portfoolio: 2000 in Canadian Caricature.

Chapter 5

94Eddie Campbell, The Goat Getters, Jack Johnson, The Fight of the Century, and How a Bunch of Raucous Cartoonists Reinvented Comics, 17.
95Ibid., 62.
95Ibid., 42, 67.
95Ibid., 40.
97“Portage Lake Victorious,” Pittsburgh Press, 13 March 1904, 21.
97–100  “Wanderers Hold Lead of Six Goals,” Montreal Gazette, 10 January 1908, 2. 
101“Two Players Were Ruled Off,” Montreal Gazette, 24 February 1913, 16.
101Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 236.
101Basil O’Meara, “Ottawa Loses Second Game Maroons Score Four to One, The Boucher Boys Starring,” Ottawa Journal, 20 March 1923, 14.
101–2  “Noted Cartoonist LeMessurier Dead,” Montreal Gazette, 28 October 1932, 13.
102“Maroons Captured Stanley Cup From Victoria Cougars,” Montreal Gazette, 7 April 1926, 18.
104Eddie Campbell, The Goat Getters, Jack Johnson, The Fight of the Century, and How a Bunch of Raucous Cartoonists Reinvented Comics, 57.
104“Montreal Blanked Victoria, 3–0, in Second Cup Game,” Montreal Gazette, 2 April 1926, 16. 
105“Montreal Cracked and Victoria Took Third Battle, 3–2,” Montreal Gazette, 5 April 1926, 16.
105“Maroons Captured Stanley Cup from Victoria Cougars,” Montreal Gazette, 7 April 1926, 18.
105Eddie Campbell, The Goat Getters, Jack Johnson, The Fight of the Century, and How a Bunch of Raucous Cartoonists Reinvented Comics, 88.

Chapter 6

106“Sporting Comment,” Toronto Saturday Night, 16 January 1897, 6.
107Lawrence Scanlan, Grace Under Fire, 29.
107Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman, The Same But Different: Hockey in Quebec, cited in Emmanuel Lapierre, “Le Soirée du Hockey in Montreal: National Stakes in a Cultural War,” 68.
107Dan Diamond, Total Hockey, second edition, 26.
107Early images of game aggression. At one 1910 CHA match “Slashing and tripping abounded,” noted reports. Because only one referee showed up to officiate, just 18 penalty minutes were called. “With the play going at such a fast pace, there was too much for one man to catch.” Ottawa beat All-Montreal 15–5. Montreal Star, 14 January 1910
108Bruce Kidd and John MacFarlane, The Death of Hockey, New Press, 1972, 4.
Society for International Hockey Research. Kaitlyn N. Carter, “The Best in the Empire’s Cause,” The Hockey Research Journal, Volume 22, December 2021, 48. Cited from J.J. Wilson, “Skating to Armageddon: Canada, Hockey and the First World War,” International Journal of the History of Sport, vol. 22, no. 3, 2005, 323.
108Susan Doyle, Jaleen Grove, Whitney Sherman, History of Illustration, 285.
108“A Canadian Carnival,” Wide Awake, February 1883, 44. 
108Arthur Farrell, Hockey: Canada’s Royal Winter Game, 43.
108Howard Mickoski, “Being a Fan of Hockey in 1900,” cited in Dan Diamond, Total Hockey, second edition, 26.
108“Sanglante Joute de Hockey a Richmond,” La Presse, 18 February 1907, 1.
108Stacy L. Lorenz and Geraint B. Osborne, “‘A Manly Nation Requires Manly Games’: Hockey Violence and the 1905 Manslaughter Trial of Allan Loney,” 285. Cited in “Canada’s troubled game suffers yet another blow,” Roy MacGregor, Globe and Mail, 10 May 2004, A1.
108Ibid.,  287. Cited in “O.H.A. Championship,” Cornwall Freeholder, 24 February 1905, 8.
108–9Al Purdy, “The Time of Your Life,” cited in Words on Ice: A Collection of Hockey Prose, edited by Michael P. J. Kennedy, 12.
109Stacy L. Lorenz and Geraint B. Osborne, “‘A Manly Nation Requires Manly Games’: Hockey Violence and the 1905 Manslaughter Trial of Allan Loney,” 287. Cited in “Loney Acquitted” Cornwall Standard, 31 March 1905, 1.
109Ibid., 288. Cited in “Another Hockey Fatality,” Cornwall Standard, 3 March 1905, 4.
109–10 Ibid., 289. Cited in “Loney Acquitted,” Cornwall Freeholder, 31 March 1905, 6; “Loney Acquitted,” Cornwall Standard, 31 March 1905, 1.
111“Thrills and Spills at the Hockey Rink,” The Literary Digest, 12 January 1929, 58.
111Ibid., 290–291. Cited in “The Power of Popular Sentiment,” Cornwall Standard, 7 April 1905, 1.
111 –13 Ibid., 290. Several sources, including Daniel S. Mason and Gregory H. Duquette, “Newspaper Coverage of Early Professional Ice Hockey: the discourses of class and control,” University of Alberta, Media History, 158–159.
113Ibid., 286.
113–4Author interview with Anthony Jenkins, October 2019
114Jason Botchford, “Things just happen,” Vancouver Province, 7 December 2007, A11.
114In his plea bargain, Bertuzzi pleaded guilty to a reduced assault charge and got a conditional discharge requiring community service. In the civil lawsuit an out-of-court settlement was reached. The terms were confidential.
114Stacy L. Lorenz and Geraint B. Osborne, “‘A Manly Nation Requires Manly Games’: Hockey Violence and the 1905 Manslaughter Trial of Allan Loney,” 291, 292.
114Ibid., 292
114Ibid., 291
114Ibid., 292. Several sources cited, including Brown, Dave. “The Northern Character Theme and Sport in Nineteenth-Century Canada.” Canadian Journal of History of Sport 20, 1 (1989): 47–56.
116“Butchery, Not Hockey, at the Arena Saturday Night,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 January 1907, 10.
116Lawrence Scanlan, Grace Under Fire, 34–35.
116J. W. Fitsell, Hockey’s Captains, Colonels and Kings, 121.
117Charles L. Coleman, The Trail of the Stanley Cup, Vol. 1, 132. Cited in the Montreal Daily Star, 13 December 1906.
117Ibid., 135.
117“‘They Should Each Get Six Months In Jail,’ Is The Opinion As To Saturday Night Brutalities,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 January 1907, 1.
117“Butchery, Not Hockey, at the Arena Saturday Night,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 January 1907, 10.
117Stacy L. Lorenz, Geraint B. Osborne, “‘Talk About Strenuous Hockey’: Violence, Manhood, and the 1907 Ottawa Silver Seven–Montreal Wanderer Rivalry,” Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 40, No.1, Winter 2006, 127.
117“Ottawas Lost to Wanderers,” Ottawa Evening Journal, 14 January 1907, 2.
117“Both Players were Fined,” Ottawa Citizen, 1 March 1907, 8.
117“Wanderers and Ottawas In Terrific Match,” Ottawa Citizen, 14 January 1907, 8.
117“Butchery, Not Hockey, at the Arena Saturday Night,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 January 1907, 10.
117“A Bombshell Explodes in Eastern Hockey,” Montreal Daily Star, 19 January 1907, 22.
118“Clean Hockey is the Watchword,” Montreal Daily Star, 23 January 1907.
118“Butchery, Not Hockey, at the Arena Saturday Night,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 January 1907, 10.
118“Ottawas Lost to Wanderers,” Ottawa Evening Journal, 14 January 1907, 2.
118Ibid., 2.
118“Butchery, Not Hockey, at the Arena Saturday Night,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 January 1907, 10.
118Daniel S. Mason and Gregory H. Duquette, “Newspaper Coverage of Early Professional Ice Hockey: the discourses of class and control,” Media History, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2004, 165.
118Ibid., 163–4.
118“Crowd Mobbed Hod Stuart,” Montreal Gazette, 5 January 1906.
118“Butchery, Not Hockey, at the Arena Saturday Night,” Montreal Daily Star. 14 January 1907, 10.
118The Ottawa Citizen and the Montreal Star wrote conflicting reports about whether Hod Stuart went to Glengarry Hospital in Montreal after the game. The Citizen claimed it was Stuart, Ernie Johnson and Cecil Blatchford who were “patched up.” The Star reported that “Stuart refused and went to the Savoy Hotel.” In their version, Johnson, Blatchford and Pud Glass saw doctors at Glengarry. 
119“Charge Against Smith Dismissed,” Montreal Daily Star, 18 February 1907.
119-20Author interview with Brian Gable, September 2019.
120“Police use batons freely on the crowd,” Ottawa Evening Journal, 28 February 1907, 1.
120-1“Wanderers Won,” Montreal Gazette, 4 March 1907, 2.
121“Montreal Wanderers Again Champions of Eastern Canada Hockey,” Ottawa Citizen, 4 March 1907, 8.
123“Cartoonist Was World Famous,” Montreal Star, 22 December 1941, 1, 5.
123Michael Traikos, “Where were the officials?”, Montreal Gazette, 12 March 2022, C7. From quote: “It got to a point where it was almost unplayable out there the last few years.”   
123W.J. Slee, “Hockey, Canada’s Great Winter Sport,” Toronto Sunday World, 21 January 1912, 1.

Chapter 7

124Chrys Goyens and Allan Turowetz, Lions in Winter, 202.
124“The Vs Won a Hockey Game but not the Holy Grail,” Maclean’s, 16 April 1955.
125Pat Curran, “Reay vows revenge on Fergy following scrap with Hull,” Montreal Gazette,  9 December 1968, 37.
127Mordecai Richler, Dispatches from the Sporting Life, 182.
127“Hull Fights Ferguson Despite Fractured Jaw,” Globe and Mail, 6 January 1969, 18.
127Ted Damata, “Hawks’ Hopes High But It Just Wasn’t Their Night,” Toronto Star, 6 January 1969, 11.
128Alan Hustak, “The Master of the Gentle Barb,” Montreal Gazette, 20 September 2007, A7.
129Milt Dunnell, “Jungle Law Rules NHL – Bathgate,” Toronto Daily Star, 9 December 1959, 1.
129“Andy Should Stick to Golf – Lynn,” Toronto Daily Star, 9 December 1959, 17.
129Scott Young, “A Close Look,” Globe and Mail, 10 December 1959, 26.
129Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 233.
130Jim Proudfoot, “Interference at Fault — Red,” Toronto Daily Star, 10 December 1959, 37.
130Milt Dunnell, “Hockey is Picnic Today — Adams,” Toronto Daily Star, 10 December 1937.
130“Andy’s Literary Assault on Rivals Costs Him $500,” Toronto Daily Star, 22 December 1959, 14.
131Tim Burke, “Start the Cleanup of Hockey Right at the Grassroots Level,” Montreal Gazette, 31 October 1975, 17.
132Dave Schultz with Stan Fischler, The Hammer: Confessions of a Hockey Enforcer, 34.
132Ibid., leaf flap.
132Ibid., 80.
132Don Weekes, The Biggest Book of Hockey Trivia, 298. 
132Dave Schultz with Stan Fischler, The Hammer: Confessions of a Hockey Enforcer, 94.
132Bob Probert with Kirstie McLellan Day, Tough Guy: My Life on the Edge, 25.
133The Soviet Union vs the NHL: 13 Years of Hockey History, 1985.
134Tim Burke, “Flyers Salvage Canada’s Pride,” Montreal Gazette, 12 January 1976, 1.
134Tim Burke, “Flyers Paint Hockey Masterpiece, Destroy Myth of Soviet Superiority,” Montreal Gazette, 12 January 1976, 15. 
134Tim Burke, “Flyers Salvage Canada’s Pride,” Montreal Gazette, 12 January 1976, 1.
134Lawrence Scanlan, Grace Under Fire, 50.
134The Soviet Union vs the NHL: 13 Years of Hockey History, 1985. 
134Roy MacSkimming, Cold War: The Amazing Canada–Soviet Hockey Series of 1972, 160.
135Dick Irvin, The Habs: An Oral History of the Montreal Canadiens, 1940–1980, 289.
135Chrys Goyens and Allan Turowetz, Lions in Winter, 198.
137Jennifer Frey, “Undercard to Probert, Main Event to Rangers,” New York Times, 3 December 1992, B21.
137Bob Probert with Kirstie McLellan Day, Tough Guy: My life on the Edge, 146.
137Tie Domi, Shift Work, 65.
137Author interview with Mark Penxa, July 2022.
137Everett Soop: Journalist, Cartoonist, Activist, Galt Museum & Archives, galtmuseum.com.
138Everett Soop Journalist, Cartoonist, Activist, Exhibition catalogue, 33. 
138Noni Brynjoson, “Aboriginal Cartoonist Drew Humour,” The Uniter, 18 March 2009.
139Ryan Kennedy “It’s Not Hockey Without Fights,” The Hockey News, 8 December 2014, 48. 
139Author interview with Ryan Kennedy, The Hockey News, 7 January 2021.
139Cathal Kelly, “The Conversation Around Hockey Fights Has, Thankfully, Shifted,” Globe and Mail, 27 March 2021, B10.
140Mark Medley, “The all–star,” Globe and Mail, 22 April 2017, R13.
140Bruce McCall, Thin Ice: Coming of Age in Canada, 137.
141Trent Frayne, The Mad Men of Hockey, 146.  
141“Canadiens Hockey Champions, Taking Hard–Fought Game,” Montreal Gazette, 26 March 1924, 16.

Chapter 8

145Michael McKinley, Hockey: A People’s History, 130.
146H.H. Roxborough, “It this a time for pro sport?,” Maclean’s, 1 January 1942.
146Ernest Hemingway, “Notes on the Next War,” Esquire, 1 September 1935, 19. Cited in: https://classic.esquire.com/article/1935/09/01/notes-on-the-next-war
148Richard Gruneau and David Whitson, Hockey Night in Canada, 193.
148“Good Athletes Best Soldiers, Colonel Says,” Montreal Daily Star, 31 March 1915.
148In some circles, it was an accepted fact that hockey better prepared men for military service. One source cited the chances of a hockey player being awarded one of Canada’s four major medals at one in nine compared to the average soldier being decorated at one in 38. 
Kaitlyn N. Carter, “The Best in the Empire’s Cause,” The Hockey Research Journal, Volume 22, December 2021, 48. Cited from J.J. Wilson, “Skating to Armageddon: Canada, Hockey and the First World War,” International Journal of the History of Sport, vol. 22, no. 3, 2005, 323.
148Jimmy Brady, “Armed With Hockey Sticks, Canadian Troops Would Wallop Teutons, Avers an Old Player,” Wichita Beacon, 15 February 1915.
149Jimmy Brady, “Armed With Hockey Sticks, Canadian Troops Would Wallop Teutons, Avers an Old Player,” Wichita Beacon, 8 February 1915, 7. Cited in Ottawa Journal, 12 December 1914, 7.
149John Davies, The Legend of Hobey Baker, Introduction by Arthur Mizener, xiii.
150Robin Anderson, “Making Fun of Sport: James Fitzmaurice, Robert Ripley, and the Art of Sport Cartooning in Vancouver, 1907–1918,” Journal of Sport History, Fall 2010, Vol. 37, No. 3, 388.
152J.L. Granatstein and Desmond Morton, A Nation Forged in Fire: Canadians and the Second World War 1939–1945, 7
152William Marchington,“Canada Lacks War Outfit Admitted,” Globe and Mail, 8 February 1936, 1.
152Cartoonist Les Callan enlisted during the Second World War. He was soon drawing Monty and Johnny for the army’s magazine The Maple Leaf. While saluting a Colonel, the officer said: “Never mind that Callan give me your hand. You did more for the morale of our outfit than anything I could think of and I want to thank you.” The Maple Leaf Forever, 1987: 21
153J.L. Granatstein and Desmond Morton, A Nation Forged in Fire: Canadians and the Second World War 1939–1945, 1.
153T. E. Nichols, These Were the ’Thirties: Cartoons by the Late Ivan Glassco, 4.
153“Hamilton Airman Killed While Removing Holster,” Globe and Mail, 27 June 1941, 4.
153Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 232.
153Kevin Plummer, “Historicist: At the Front with ‘Monty and Johnny,’” torontoist.com
153Barry D. Rowland, The Maple Leaf Forever: The Story of Canada’s Foremost Armed Forces Newspaper, ix.
154Michael Hirsh, Patrick Loubert and Clive Smith, The Great Canadian Comic Books, 24.
157Stan Fischler, “Worst Loss in NHL History,” The Hockey News, 9 November 2015, 55.
157Conn Smythe with Scott Young, Conn Smythe If You Can’t Beat ’Em in the Alley, 140.
159Kelly McParland, The Lives of Conn Smythe: From the Battlefield to Maple Leaf Gardens: A Hockey Icon’s Story, 205.
159Jack Boothe, Heeling Hitler, Introduction.
159Jack Boothe, Accent on Axis, Introduction.
159Morley Callaghan, “The Game That Makes a Nation,” from Riding on the Roar of the  Crowd: A Hockey Anthology, edited by David Gowdey, 50–52.

Chapter 9

160J. W. Bengough, A Caricature History of Canadian Politics, edition 1886. 
163Duncan Macpherson, Duncan Macpherson 1970 Editorial Cartoons, Introduction  by Jock Carroll, “Duncan Macpherson A Penetrating Analysis of the Artist and His Work.”
163Ian McLaren, The Hecklers: Two Centuries of Canadian Political Cartooning, National Film Board.
165Duncan Macpherson, Duncan Macpherson 1970 Editorial Cartoons, Introduction  by Jock Carroll, “Duncan Macpherson A Penetrating Analysis of the Artist and His Work.”
165Peter Goddard, “Duncan Macpherson’s Other Side,” Toronto Star, 24 May 2008, E12.
166Hyman Solomon, “Pearson Urges: ‘Explore French–English Links,’” Toronto Daily Star, 18 December 1962, 1–2.
166Joseph Schull, The Great Scot: A Biography of Donald Gordon, 219.
166Hyman Solomon, “Pearson Urges: ‘Explore French–English Links,’” Toronto Daily Star, 18 December 1962, 1–2. 
168Brian Gable, “Illustrative Lessons of a Cartoonist’s Career,” Globe and Mail, 8 April 2017,  R8.
169Victor S. Navasky, The Art of Controversy: Political Cartoons and their Enduring Power, 158.
170Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 148.
171Brian Gable, “Illustrative Lessons of a Cartoonist’s Career,” Globe and Mail, 8 April 2017, R8.
171Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 124.
171Brad Wheeler, “Comedian Made Canada Laugh at Itself,” Globe and Mail, 12 November 2016, S12.
171Barry Hertz, “Costume Designer Denise Cronenberg was Instrumental to Success of Canada’s Most Unshakeable Cinema,” Globe and Mail, 10 June 2020. Interview quote by Eric (E.C.) Woodley, son of Denise Cronenberg: “Because she started in the late 50s and worked through the 60s, she was in on the beginning of a certain sort of cultural nationalism and pride.”
172Peter Mosher, “Davis Promises to Fight Price Increases of Oil and Gas at Federal–Provincial Talks,” Globe and Mail, 7 April 1975, 1.
172Len Norris, Norris 25th Anniversary Collection, 101 Cartoons, cited in Introduction Why “101?,” Stuart Keate, 1976.
172Roy Peterson, Drawn and Quartered: The Trudeau Years, Introduction by Peter C. Newman, 81.
173Ibid., 12.
173Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 129.
173Len Norris, Norris: The Canadian Museum of Caricature, xii, xiii.
174Len Norris, The Best of Norris 1955, Introduction.
174Ibid., Introduction.
174Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 125.
174Author interview with Vance Rodewalt, October 2019.
175Author interview with Bruce MacKinnon, October 2019.
179Author interview with Bruce MacKinnon, October 2019.

Chapter 10

180Benoît Melançon, The Rocket: A Cultural History of Maurice Richard, 200.
180Author interview with Sean Thompson, August 2022.
181Herbert Warren Wind, “The Rocket’s Flair,” The Canadiens Century, Sports Illustrated, 28–29.
181Trent Frayne, It’s Easy: All You Have To Do Is Win, 57.
181Benoît Melançon, The Rocket: A Cultural History of Maurice Richard, 81.
182Herbert Warren Wind, “The Rocket’s Flair,” The Canadiens Century, Sports Illustrated, 29.
183Yvan Lamonde, “Un coin dans la mémoire,” 2017. Also cited in Robert Everett Green, “A history not remembered,” Globe and Mail, 27 January 2018.
183Maurice Richard, “J’ai souvent vu rouge,” La Presse, 15 March 1995, Sports, 9. “J’etais violent, oui. Mais je n’etais pas méchant.”  
183Hugh MacLennan, “The Rocket: A Hero For Quebec,” Saturday Night, 15 January 1955.
184Benoît Melançon, The Rocket: A Cultural History of Maurice Richard, 29. Cited in Hockey Digest, Chris O’Donnell.
184Mordecai Richler, Dispatches from the Sporting Life, 171.
184Roch Carrier, Our Life With The Rocket: The Maurice Richard Story, 31.
184Ibid., 71.
184Maurice Richard was so beloved, fans typically and famously raised sufficient money to pay his fines.
188Terry Vaios Gitersos, “‘Ça devient une question d’être maîtres chez nous’: The Canadiens, Nordiques, and the Politics of Québécois Nationalism, 1979–1984,” University of Western Ontario, 2011, 54. Also cited in: David Whitson and Richard Gruneau, Artificial Ice: Hockey, Culture, and Commerce. Cited in Jean Harvey, “Whose Sweater is This?: The Changing Meanings of Hockey in Québec,” 39.
188Mordecai Richler, Dispatches from the Sporting Life, 97.
189Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman, The Same But Different: Hockey in Quebec, cited in Emmanuel Lapierre, “Le Soirée du Hockey in Montreal: National Stakes in a Cultural War,” 68. From : “Comme si l’avenir de la nation était en jeu”; Black. “Evolution de l’image projectée par le Club de Hockey Canadien depuis ses origines jusqu’au mythe de la tradition glorieuse,” 37, 83.
189Terry Vaios Gitersos, “‘Ça devient une question d’être maîtres chez nous’: The Canadiens, Nordiques, and the Politics of Québécois Nationalism, 1979–1984,” University of Western Ontario, 2011, 54. Cited in “Réal Cloutier de nouveau blessé,” Dimanche–Matin, 7 October 1979, 56.
190James Creighton’s game rules were almost a word-for-word copy of the English field hockey rules.
191“The Carnival, To–Day’s Programme,” Montreal Gazette, 26 January 1883, 5. 
191J.W. Fitsell, Hockey’s Captains, Colonels and Kings, 41. Cited in the Montreal Star, 1885.
191W. George Beers, “Carnival Winter Characteristics,” Montreal Daily Star, Carnival No. 1885, February 1885, 9.
191Only the first Montreal carnival of 1883 hosted two of its four games on the St. Lawrence River.
193Adam Gopnik, Winter: Five Windows of the Season, 162.
193Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman, The Same But Different: Hockey in Quebec, cited in Michel Vigneault, “Montreal’s Francophone Hockey Beginnings, 1895–1910,” 44.
194“French–Canadian Hockey Team May Enter E.C.H.A.,” Montreal Daily Star, 11 March 1909.
194“Une Joute de Hockey Tres Brillante,” La Patrie, 2. Quote translated from: “l’équipe canadienne–française inspira beaucoup de respect aux Wanderers.”    
194Adam Gopnik, Winter  Five Windows on the Season, 160.
195Arthur Racey, Canadian Men of Affairs in Cartoon, cited in Foreword by S. Morgan-Powell, 1922.
196“Canadiens Gave Wanderers a Thorough Beating – Scenes of Carnage Marked End of Match,” Montreal Daily Star, 8 February 1911, 6.
196Tancrede Marsil, “Chronicle Sportive,” Le Devoir, 21 March 1909, 3. Quote translated from: “Le Canadien, sur la glace, n’a pas représenté les couleurs des Canadiens–Français, mais les intéréts financiers de M. O’Brien.”
196“L’engagement de Rocket Power,” Le Devoir, 14 February 1911, 5. Quote translated from: “une grave insulte,” “une bourde,” “déshonneur.”   
196D’Arcy Jenish, The Montreal Canadiens: 100 Years of Glory, 37.
197Chrys Goyens and Allan Turowetz, Lions in Winter, 38.
197D’Arcy Jenish, The Montreal Canadiens: 100 Years of Glory, 67
197Chrys Goyens and Allan Turowetz, Lions in Winter, 33.
197Ibid., 34.
197Chrystian Goyens, with Allan Turowetz and Jean–Luc Duguay, The Montreal Forum, 34.
197Wilfrid Victor “Bill” Roche, The Hockey Book, 184.
197–8 E. W. Ferguson, “Tigers Showed Their Real Speed And Only A Super-Team Beat Them,” Montreal Herald, 26 March 1924, 6.
198“Canadiens Hockey Champions, Taking Hard–Fought Game,” Montreal Gazette, 26 March 1924, 16.
198E.W. Ferguson, “Series Proves Vezina Greatest Goaler, But — Baseball’s His Ambition,” Montreal Herald, 27 March 1924, 6. 
199“Last Night’s Dinner was a Magnificent Tribute of Friendship and Admiration for Great Work Done by World’s Championship Hockeyists,” Montreal Daily Star, 2 April 1924, 6.

Chapter 11

200Stu Cowan, “Kovalchuk, Tatar Not Easy To Replace,” Montreal Gazette, 28 January 2020, B4.
202Frederick Edwards, “Record Crown Cheers Maroons To Victory,” Montreal Herald, 4 April 1928, 6.
202“What the Railbirds Saw and Heard,” Montreal Star, 4 April 1928, 36.
202Trent Frayne, The Mad Men of Hockey, 127.
202Ibid., 82.
203Mordecai Richler, Dispatches from the Sporting Life, 260.
203Stu Cowan, “Price Shouldn’t Have To Always Be Mr. Cool,” Montreal Gazette, 11 November 2021,  NP12
203Roy MacGregor, “Habs Hysteria,” Globe and Mail, 2 December 2017, S1.
203Paul Henderson with Jim Prime, How Hockey Explains Canada, 73.
203“Series was liable to go either way says Eddie Gerard,” Montreal Daily Star, 4 April 1928, 36.
204Paul Stewart, “The ‘Montreal Factor’ and Refereeing,” hockeybuzz, 25 October 2013.  
204Charles L. Coleman, The Trail of the Stanley Cup, Vol. 1, 206.
205Cam Cole, “Asking What Ought To Be Asked,” Vancouver Sun, 24 April 2014, D9. 
205Andy O’Brien and Jacques Plante, The Jacques Plante Story, 37. Also cited in Jacques Plante: The Man who Changed the Face of Hockey, Todd Denault, 35.
205John Edgecumbe Staley, “The Cartoonmen of Canada,” Maclean’s, 1 March 1914, 43.
206Henri Julien, Henri Julien Album, 1916, a chapter by Brenton A. MacNab, 11.
206Charles Press, The Political Cartoon, 358.
207Author interview with Dominic Hardy, December 2017.
207Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman, The Same But Different Hockey in Quebec, cited in Frazer Andrews, “Two Hundred Years for Fighting: ‘A History of Resistance’ in Two Bilingual Hockey Plays,” 174.
208At the time, it was generally accepted that Eric Lindros did not want to play in a French-only town. It has been clearly established that Lindros wouldn’t join the Nordiques because of an “incident” that happened between Marcel Aubut and Lindros’ mother after which she made it clear that the family would never deal with him again.
209Victor S. Navasky, The Art of Controversy: Political Cartoons and their Enduring Power, 34.
209Author interview with Serge Chapleau, October 2019.
209–11 Sara Curtis, “The Truth Hurts,” Applied Arts Magazine, July–August 2001, Vol. 16, No.   4, 138.
211Jeff Z. Klein and Karl-Eric Reif, The Death Of Hockey, 4.
211Dick Irvin, The Habs: An Oral History of the Montreal Canadiens, 1940–1980, 281, 282.
212Red Fisher, Red Fisher: Hockey, Heroes, and Me, 74.
212The Hockey Book, Introduction by Michael Farber, Mark Kram, “Worrying Is The Way to Win,” Sports Illustrated, 219.
212Dick Irvin, The Habs: An Oral History of the Montreal Canadiens, 1940–1980, 133.
212Sara Curtis, “The Truth Hurts,” Applied Arts Magazine, July–August 2001, Vol. 16, No. 4, 138. 
213The Hockey Book, Introduction by Michael Farber, cited in Mark Kram, “Worrying is the Way to Win,” Sports Illustrated, 219.
215Mordecai Richler, Dispatches from the Sporting Life, 242.
216Neil Longley, “The Underrepresentation of French Canadian Players On English Canadian NHL Team: Evidence from 1943 to 1998,” Journal of Sports Economics, March 2001, 236–256.
216Bob Sirois, Discrimination in the NHL: Quebec Hockey Players Sidelined, 27.
216The first and only time to date that the Montreal Canadiens played a game without a single Québecois in the lineup was on May 9, 2021.
216Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman, The Same But Different: Hockey in Quebec, from Terry Vaios Gitersos, “Labour, Francophonization and National Identity in Hockey’s Battle for Quebec, 1980–1983, 114. Cited in “Le Canadien a Oublié le Québec,” Réjean Tremblay, La Presse, 3 October 1980,  B2. 
216Ibid., 115. Cited in “Le Grande Serge amène avec lui un gros morceau de l’âme du Canadien,” Réjean Tremblay, La Presse, 12 December 1981, H5. “D’ici deux ou trois ans, Le Canadien sera moins qu’une équipe comme les autres.” 
216Ibid., 121. Cited in Marcel Gaudette, “Ronald Corey: son choix d’est Molson (air connu),” Le Soleil, 13 November 1982, F2.
218“Good Friday Massacre An Oral History of One of the Greatest Games in NHL History: Quebec Nordiques vs. Montreal Canadiens, April 20, 1984 Div. Final, Game 6,” as told to Dave Zarum, Sportsnet.ca
219–20    Jason Blake and Andrew C. Holman, The Same But Different: Hockey in Quebec, 121. Cited in “Piraterie’ entre Montreal et Québec,” Claude Larochelle, Le Soleil, 13 November 1982, F1. “Le francophone que le Canadien se devait d’aller chercher.”  

Chapter 12

222Quote from The Natural, Delphi II Productions, Tri-Star Pictures, 1984, screenplay by Roger Towne and Phil Dusenberry. Based on The Natural by Bernard Malamud.
222The “missing” items after Sidney Crosby’s 2010 Olympic gold-medal winner: An errant glove of Crosby’s and his RBK 7K Gold composite stick were lost. So too was USA goalie Ryan Miller’s net, until the Hockey Hall of Fame prevented it from being auctioned off by a memorabilia dealer. Linesman Stefan Fonselius retrieved the puck from Miller’s net and forgot he had it until his cross-Atlantic trip to Finland. “Nobody remembered it, not even me,” Fonselius said.
223“The Thousands Who Waited to the Very Finish,” Montreal Daily Star, 18 March 1902, 2.
223“Watching the Star Bulletin Service During the Evening,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 March 1902, 2. 
223“The Bulletin Story,” Montreal Daily Star, 18 March 1902, 2.
223–4 Stacy Lyle Lorenz, “Manhood, Rivalry, and the Creation of a Canadian ‘Hockey World’: Media Coverage of Early Stanley Cup Hockey Challenges, 1894–1907,” University of Alberta, Fall 2012, Abstract.
224Douglas Fetherling, The Rise of the Canadian Newspaper, 96.
224Ibid., 58.
225“Ottawa Playing Championship Hockey,” Ottawa Free Press, 13 January 1908, 10. Also cited in: Eric Whitehead, Cyclone Taylor A Hockey Legend, 56-58.
225“Lou Skuce — Official Cartoonist,” Maple Leaf Gardens Official Programme, 1932, 52. Also cited in: Maple Leaf “Canada’s Greatest Cartoonist Lou Skuce’s Charmed and Versatile Career,” Conan Tobias, Taddle Creek magazine, Summer 2016.
226Maple Leafs Gardens Prospectus Booklet, 1931.
229Kelly McParland, The Lives of Conn Smythe: From the Battlefield to Maple Leaf Gardens: A Hockey Icon’s Story, 134.
231“Presentation of Decorations for Bravery, Governor General of Canada,” gg.ca, 2015. “The mighty ‘man of steel’ hides his extraordinary strength, speed, and superhuman powers under the bland, self–effacing guise of the weak and clumsy Clark Kent. He is a hero who does not take any credit for his own heroism, a glamorous figure in cape and tights who is content to live his daily life in horn–rimmed glasses and brown suits.”
231Conan Tobias, “Canada’s Greatest Cartoonist Lou Skuce’s Charmed and Versatile Career,” Taddle Creek magazine, Summer 2016.
232Douglas Hunter, Open Ice: The Tim Horton Story, 56.
233-4Michael McKinley, Hockey: A People’s History, 145.
235David Cruise and Alison Griffiths, Net Worth: Exploding the Myths of Pro Hockey, 111.
235Ibid., 89.
239Charles Campbell, “How CBC Lost Its Hockey Theme,” TheTyee.ca, 13 June 2008.
239Joe Reedy, “NHL Sighs Broadcast Deal with Turner Sports, Ends Run on NBC,” Globe and Mail, 28 April 2021.   
240Dave Feschuk, “Strombo Out, MacLean In as Hockey Night Host,” Toronto Star, 20 June 2016, A7.
240Ibid.

Chapter 13

242“Wellingtons Home Today,” The Globe, 28 January 1902, 10.
243W. A. H. Kerr, “Hockey in Ontario,” Dominion Illustrated Monthly, March 1893, 100–101.
243“Hockey The Vice Regal Team will Play Two Games Here,” Toronto Daily Mail, 7 February 1890, 3. Preceding the two-game series between the visiting Ottawa Rideau Rebels against the Toronto Granites and the Toronto St. Georges, the Toronto Daily Mail described the game of hockey as “somewhat like lacrosse, but far quicker, and the excitement is at fever heat all the time.”
243“Hockey The Granites Defeated,” Toronto Daily Mail, 10 February 1890.
243“The Visitors Beaten by the St. Georges,” Toronto Daily Mail, 10 February 1890.
244The Umpire, “Sporting Comment,” Toronto Saturday Night, 16 January 1897, 6.
244“Hockey Clubs in Toronto,” Toronto Daily Mail and Empire, 22 January 1896.
244“Hockey Protest Entered To–Day,” Toronto Daily Star, 18 January 1901, 8.
245Stephen J. Harper, A Great Game: The Forgotten Leafs & The Rise of Professional Hockey, 16–17.
245Ibid., 70.
245“Is There Professionalism in Ontario Hockey Association?” Toronto Daily News, 17 November 1905.
246Ibid.
247Conan Tobias, “Canada’s Greatest Cartoonist Lou Skuce’s Charmed and Versatile Career,” Taddle Creek magazine, Summer 2016.
247John Edgecumbe Staley, “The Cartoonmen of Canada,” Maclean’s, 1 March 1914, 46.
247Conan Tobias, “Canada’s Greatest Cartoonist Lou Skuce’s Charmed and Versatile Career,” Taddle Creek magazine, Summer 2016.
247“Saints Defeated in Rousing Game,” Toronto World, 3 February 1915.
248Conan Tobias, “Canada’s Greatest Cartoonist Lou Skuce’s Charmed and Versatile Career,” Taddle Creek magazine, Summer 2016.
249Kelly McParland, The Lives of Conn Smythe: From the Battlefield to Maple Leaf Gardens: A Hockey Icon’s Story, 55.
250John Clare, “Conn Smythe’s Wondrous Pleasure Dome,” Maclean’s, 1 March 1958, 22.
250Conn Smythe with Scott Young, Conn Smythe: If You Can’t Beat ’Em in the Alley, 102
250Ted Reeve, “Sporting Extras,” Toronto Evening Telegram, 13 November 1931, 27.
250“Thousands Throng Gardens as Leafs Open New House,” Toronto Evening Telegram, 13 November 1931, 26.
250John Davies, The Legend of Hobey Baker, Introduction by Arthur Mizener, xiii.
251Blair Fraser, “When Will the Floundering Maple Leafs Lower the Boom?” Maclean’s, 13 April 1957, 3.
253Author interview with Sean Thompson, August 2022.
253Jack Reppen, “Biography,” askart.com.
253Kevin Plummer, “Historicist: Mixed Media Jack Reppen pulls double duty as a cartoonist and a ‘serious’ artist,” Torontoist, 9 August 2014.
256Robin Anderson, “Making Fun of Sport: James Fitzmaurice, Robert Ripley, and the Art of Sport Cartooning in Vancouver, 1907–1918,” University of the Fraser Valley, Fall 2010, 377.
256Ibid., 374–375.
256Ibid., 381.
256Ibid., 377.
256Kevin Plummer, “Historicist: Mixed Media Jack Reppen pulls double duty as a cartoonist and a ‘serious’ artist,” Torontoist, 9 August 2014.
256–7 Arnold Rockman, “Pay Tribute to Talent of Jack Reppen,” Toronto Daily Star, 6 June 1964, 19.

Chapter 14

258Cathal Kelly, “The Maple Leafs have figured out the real secret of the rebuilding process: Be boring,” Globe and Mail, 1 February 2016, S1–S2.
258Michael Traikos, “Matthews, McDavid or Makar – who will be this year’s MVP?,” Toronto Sun, 10 October 2022.
259Jim Vipond, “Hero’s Welcome for Maple Leafs,” Globe and Mail, 16 April 1948, 17.
259Andrew Podnieks, A Canadian Saturday Night Hockey and the Culture of a Country, 2.
260Eric Zweig, The Toronto Maple Leafs: The Complete Oral History, 439.
260Author interview with Malcolm Mayes, October 2019
260Cathal Kelly, “Normalcy erupts as Maple Leafs and hockey reporters drop the gloves again,” Globe and Mail, 27 April 2018.
261Michael Traikos, “Kadri comes full circle, proving haters wrong,” Montreal Gazette, 28 June 2022, NP10.
261Author interview with Anthony Jenkins, October 2018
261Frank Orr, “Spat on and abused Fred Shero is hot at Gardens’ fans,” Toronto Star, 17 April 1976, D2.  
263“Flyers ‘butchers’ Leaf boss claims.” Toronto Star, 17 April 1976, A2.
263“It’s a disgrace angry fans say,” Toronto Star, 17 April 1976, A2.
263Frank Orr, “Spat on and abused Fred Shero is hot at Gardens’ fans,” Toronto Star, 17 April 1976, D2.  
263Author interview with Fred Sebastian, March 2023.
263“McMurtry calls Philly D.A. ‘a damn fool’ on hockey,” Toronto Star, 21 April 1976, A1.
263Jim Proudfoot, “It’s too violent says Bob Hope about hockey,” Toronto Star, 20 April 1976, C2.
264Frank Orr, “Flyers will be tougher at the Spectrum,” Toronto Star, 19 April 1976, B1.
264Frank Orr, “Leafs blew it in ‘one lousy minute’,” Toronto Star, 21 April 1976, C1.
265Frank Orr, “Shero calls Leaf fans ‘vicious, mean, foul–mouthed’,” Toronto Star, 23 April 1976, A1.
265Milt Dunnell, “Skills to remember but night to forget,” Toronto Star, 23 April 196, C1.
265Author interview with Anthony Jenkins, October 2019.
266Jo Carson, “Kellys reaching peaks with pyramid power,” Globe and Mail, 24 April 1976, C1.
266Don Ramsay, “Leafs could create biggest upset of NHL season Sunday,” Globe and Mail, 24 April 1976, 48.
268Gregory Strong, “NHL has had some colourful owners,” Montreal Gazette, 18 May 2017, B1. 
268William Houston, Ballard: A Portrait of Canada’s Most Controversial Sports Figure, 125.
268Ibid., 177
269Rick Fraser, “Worst–ever Leafs lose No. 46,” Toronto Star, 17 March 1985, E1.
270Kevin McGran, “The Nick of Time,” Toronto Star, 27 May 2018, S1.
270Al Strachan, Why the Leafs Suck and How They Can Be Fixed, 67.
271Eric Zweig, The Toronto Maple Leafs: The Complete Oral History, 425
271Ibid., 432.
272Ken Campbell, “True Blue,” The Hockey News, Future Watch 2018, 2 April 2018, 22.
272“Near-empty house,” Toronto Star, 17 October 1985, E1.
273Author interview with Anthony Jenkins, October 2019.
276Ken Campbell, “Get This Party Started,” The Hockey News, 22 June 2015, 22. 
276Cathal Kelly, “The John Gibbons era is over in Toronto — and it’s not entirely clear why,” Globe and Mail, 26 September 2018.
277Marty Klinkenberg, “Everyone involved with Leafs knows that making the playoffs isn’t enough,” Globe and Mail, 22 September 2022, B14.
277Kristen Shilton, “Shanahan: ‘Killer instinct’ missing in Habs Series; Leafs want to keep core,” tsn.ca, 2 June 2021.
277Don DeLillio, Pafko at the Wall: A Novella, 2001. Originally published in Harper’s Magazine, October 1992.

Chapter 15

278Edward Cavell, Sometime A Great Nation: A Photo Album of Canada 1850–1925, 19.
279Dick Wimmer, The Fastest Game: An Anthology of Hockey Writings, 91. Cited in Earl McCrae, “Lament for a Wounded Hero.”
279Chris McDonell, Shoot From The Lip, 118.
279“The Bulletin Story,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 March 1902, 2.
280Dan Diamond, The Spirit Of The Game: Exceptional photographs from the Hockey Hall of Fame, 2.
280Edward Cavell and Dennis Reid, When Winter Was King: The Image of Winter in 19th Century Canada, 59.
280Ibid., 65.
281Ibid., 59.
282“The Backward Hockey Season Has Been a Dead Loss to Rinks,” Toronto News, 30  December 1905, 3.
282“The Bulletin Story,” Montreal Daily Star, 14 March 1902, 2. 
282Author correspondence with Jaleen Grove, September 2018.
282Author correspondence with Lloyd Davis, June 2017.
289Al Nickleson, “Defeat Not Easy For Great Habs,” Globe and Mail, 23 April 1951, 20.
289Red Burnett, “One Last Tip to the New Champs — Save Your Press Chippings,” Toronto Star, 23 April 1951, 14.

Chapter 16

290Don Weekes, Jaw Dropping Hockey Trivia, 98.
291Jim Kearney, “Russians Ready Now to Play NHL’s Best,” Vancouver Sun, 19 February 1968, 20.
291Author correspondence with Patrick Houda and Aleksandr Arjannikov, January 2020.
293“Russians are ‘learning’ at Teachers’ Expense,” Toronto Daily Star, 23 January 1969, 14.
293Scott Young, War On Ice: Canada in International Hockey, 16.
293M. J. Rodden, “On the Highways of Sport,” The Globe, 11 February 1930, 10.
293Andy O’Brien, “Canada Outscored Them, 88–3,” Montreal Star (Weekend Magazine, Vol. 10 No. 9), 29 February 1960.
293–4  Ibid.
295W.G. Hardy, “Fiasco on Ice,” Maclean’s, 1 February 1948, 10.
296“Lyndhursts Outskated, Outchecked,” Globe and Mail, 8 March 1954, 1.
296“Life Will Go On,” Globe and Mail, 9 March 1954, 6.
296–7 Rex MacLeod, “Send Leafs There to Keep Flag Flying: Smythe,” Globe and Mail, 9 March 1954, 17.
297Scott Young, War On Ice Canada in International Hockey, 33.
297Rex MacLeod, “Send Leafs There to Keep Flag Flying: Smythe,” Globe and Mail, 9 March 1954, 17.
297Scott Young, War On Ice: Canada in International Hockey, 33.
297Arch MacKenzie, “Strong Feeling Among Fans, Vs Canada Should Quit Ice Tourney,” Montreal Gazette, 8 March 1955, 18.
297Scott Young, War On Ice: Canada in International Hockey, 25.
297Milt Dunnell, “From Penticton to the Pack–up,” Toronto Daily Star, 5 January 1970, 8.
297Erwin Swangard, “Crusher Up To Old Tricks,” Vancouver Sun, 28 February 1955, 16. 
297Ibid. 
297– 8Milt Dunnell, “From Penticton to the Pack–up,” Toronto Daily Star, 5 January 1970, 8.
298Erwin Swangard, “Fans Hoot V’s Tactics,” Vancouver Sun, 1 March 1955, 16.
298Jim Proudfoot, “Canada Should Kick Over The Traces,” Toronto Daily Star, 16 March 1963, 29.
299“Swedish papers support Canadians,” Montreal Gazette, 6 January 1970, 21.
299Jim Proudfoot, “Canada Should Kick Over The Traces,” Toronto Daily Star, 16 March 1963, 29.
299–300    “The Vs Won a Hockey Game but not the Holy Grail,” Maclean’s, 16 April 1955, 2.
300Arch MacKenzie, “Strong Feeling Among Fans, Vs Canada Should Quit Ice Tourney,” Montreal Gazette, 8 March 1955, 18.
300Milt Dunnell, “From Penticton to the Pack–up,” Toronto Daily Star, 5 January 1970, 8.
300Jim Proudfoot, “Our Complacency Also Trampled,” Toronto Daily Star, 16 March 1963, 29.
300Scott Young, War On Ice: Canada in International Hockey, 65.
300Ike Hildebrand, “Russian Coach Uses Hockey To Gum Up Macs,” Toronto Daily Star, 17 February 1959, 19. 
300Ibid.
301“Canada Needs A New Approach To Olympic Hockey —Dudley,” Montreal Daily Star, 29 February 1960, 27.
302Ibid.
302Andy O’Brien, “U.S. Won Puck Crown On Spirit,” Montreal Daily Star, 29 February 1960
302Scott Young, War On Ice: Canada in International Hockey, 92.
302Figure 16.16 “Rocket Power Will Replace Red Air Force,” Montreal Star, 14 January 1960.
304Maurice Smith, “One fluke goal, one offside; ‘great disappointment’: McLeod,” Globe and Mail, 28 March 1967, 32.
304Author interview with Bruce MacKinnon, September 2019.
305Robert Duffy, “Canada pulls out team from world hockey play,” Globe and Mail, 5 January 1970, 1.
305Author correspondence with Patrick Houda. January 2020.
306“World tournament shifted to Sweden,” Montreal Gazette, 5 January 1970, 13.
306“Sabotage!”, Montreal Gazette, 5, January 1970, 13.
307Dick Beddoes, “Expect no favors in enemy town,” Globe and Mail, 28 March 1967, 32.
307Olympic boss Avery Brundage’s refusal to allow professionals to compete with amateurs in world hockey was hypocritical, considering that soccer players who had played in World Cup tournaments against professionals were not threatened in the same way.

Chapter 17

308Jeff Z. Klein, “In 1972, Hockey’s Cold War Boiled Over,” New York Times, 1 September 2012. “To me, it was war,” Esposito said in 1989 and on several occasions since. “There’s no doubt in my mind that I think I would have killed to win.”
309Lawrence Martin, The Red Machine: The Soviet Quest to Dominate Canada’s Game, 18.
310Ibid., 6.
313Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 237. 
313–4 Terry Mosher, “On Thin Ice,” Canada’s History, August–September 2012, 35.
314Author interview with Aislin (Terry Mosher), October 2019.
314Matthew Diffee, Hand Drawn Jokes for Smart Attractive People.
316Roy MacSkimming, Cold War, 149.
316Jack Ludwig, “Team Canada in War and Peace,” illustrations by Aislin, Maclean’s, 1 December 1972, 33.
316Jack Ludwig, Hockey Night in Moscow, 43.
316Ibid., 51, 79.
316–7“Hockey Humiliation, Our team represented us too accurately,” Toronto Star, 4 September 1972, 6. 
317Jack Ludwig, Hockey Night in Moscow, 79.
317Scott Morrison, The Days Canada Stood Still: Canada vs USSR 1972, 45.
318Ibid., 51.
318Ibid., 140.
318Dick Beddoes, Globe and Mail, 4 September 1972.
319Roy MacSkimming, Cold War, 146
319Ibid., 161
319“Spirit of ’72 Summit Series,” Hockey Hall of Fame, hhof.com.
320Szymom Szemberg and Andrew Podnieks, World of Hockey: Celebrating a Century of  the IIHF, 73.
321Don Weekes, World Class Hockey Trivia, 25.

Chapter 18

322Ed Willes, Gretzky to Lemieux: The Story of the 1987 Canada Cup, 169.
322Author interview with Bruce MacKinnon, October 2019.
323Jack Ludwig, Hockey Night in Moscow, 46.
324Michael Posner, “Maybe Canada would have won anyway, but the deck did tend to be a little stacked,” Maclean’s, 4 October 1976, 66.
325Jim Proudfoot, “Victory everywhere but on the ice,” Toronto Star, 15 May 1978, B2.
325Jim Proudfoot, “Canadians’ bronze medal proof of a job well done,” Toronto Star, 15 May 1978, B1.
326Joe Pelletier and Patrick Houda, The World Cup of Hockey, 132.
326Pete McMartin, “Canada captures fabulous series on Gretzky-to-Lemieux winning goal,” Vancouver Sun, 16 September 1987, B1.
327“Brawling Soviets to be disciplined,” Vancouver Sun, 5 January 1987, 1.
328Damien Cox, “Fire–breathing Gretzky circles the wagons,” Toronto Star, 19 February 2002, D2.
328Stephen Brunt, “Gretzky rallies the troops in echo of the ’72 Summit,” Globe and Mail, 19 February 2002, 1.
328Ellen Vanstone, “He ‘almost had a tear in his eye,’” Globe and Mail, 23 February 2002, F3.
328– 9Eric Duhatschek, “U.S., Canada aim for gold,” Globe and Mail, 23 February 2002, A13.
329Eric Duhatschek, “Canadians get ready for ultimate hockey duel,” Globe and Mail, 23 February 2002, A1.
329–31Nicolaas Van Rijn, “Hockey win unites us, makes us feel special,” Toronto Star, 26 February 2002, A7.
331Brett Hull and Kevin Allen, Brett: Shootin’ and Smilin’, 200.
331Andrew Phillips, “Silver Lining,” Maclean’s, 2 March 1992, 38.
333Bruce Wallace, “Hockey Meltdown,” Maclean’s, 2 March 1998, 35.
333Grant Robertson, “Rules are rules: After shunning silver, Jocelyne Larocque ordered to wear medal.” Globe and Mail, 22 February 2018.
333Joshua Clipperton, “Bedard’s brilliant overtime goal was rehearsed,” Montreal Gazette, 4 January 2023, NP9.

Chapter 19

334Laura Robinson, She Shoots, She Scores: Canadian Perspectives on Women and Sport, 32.
334Brian McFarlane, Proud Past, Bright Future: One Hundred Years of Canadian Women’s Hockey, 169.
334Ibid., 167.
336M. Ann Hall, The Girl and the Game: A History of Women’s Sport in Canada, 165.
337Ibid., 94.
337Bobbie Rosenfeld, “Feminine Sports Reel,” Globe and Mail, 10 January 1941, 16.
337Brian McFarlane, Proud Past, Bright Future: One Hundred Years of Canadian Women’s Hockey, 3.
337Michael McKinley, Hockey: A People’s History, 126.
337Brian McFarlane, Proud Past, Bright Future: One Hundred Years of Canadian Women’s Hockey, 126.
337M. Ann Hall, The Girl and the Game: A History of Women’s Sport in Canada, Introduction, xxii.
337Andy Lytle, “Girls Shouldn’t Do It,” Chatelaine, May 1933, 13.
337Fast Play at the Ladies’ Hockey Game,” Montreal Daily Star, 10 February 1910.
337–8 Christina Burr and Carol A. Reader, “Fannie ‘Bobbie’ Rosenfeld: A ‘Modern Woman’ of Sport and Journalism in Twentieth–Century Canada,” University of Windsor, Sports History Review, 2013, 44, 120–143. Cited in “Girls Are in Sports for Good,” Bobbie Rosenfeld, Chatelaine, July 1933, 6–7, 29. 78.
338 Andy Lytle, “Girls Shouldn’t Do It,” Chatelaine, May 1933, 13.
338“Lou Marsh Introduces Andy Lytle Coast Columnist Joins Star Staff,” Toronto Star, 2 February 1934, 11.
338–9 “Fair Ladies Faced the Puck,” Montreal Daily Star, 4 March 1903, 5.
339Ibid.
339M. Ann Hall, The Girl and the Game: A History of Women’s Sport in Canada, Second Edition, 78, 91-92, 94, 153.
339Ibid., 148.
339–40 H. H. Roxborough, “Give the Girls a Hand,” Maclean’s, 15 February 1929, 16.
340Michael McKinley, Hockey: A People’s History, 125. Cited in Toronto Daily Star.
340M. Ann Hall, The Girl and the Game: A History of Women’s Sport in Canada, Introduction.
340“Skirts Troubled the Gentlemen,” Montreal Daily Star, 10 March 1910.
343Victor S. Navasky, The Art of Controversy: Political Cartoons and their Enduring Power, 156.
344J. Andrew Ross, Joining the Clubs: The Business of the National Hockey League to 1945, 182.
344Sid Barron, The (Le) Barron Book, 1972, Introduction.
348Brian McFarlane, Proud Past, Bright Future: One Hundred Years of Canadian Women’s Hockey, 161.
348–9Kevin Shea, “One On One With Cammi Granato,” hhof.com, 6 December 2011.
351Eric Duhatschek, “A Vision of Parity,” Globe and Mail, 10 January 2017, S1–S3.
351Scott Stinson, “Women reached pinnacle with golden moment,” Montreal Gazette, 24 December 2022, B10.

Chapter 20

352Bruce Arthur, “Game 6 dud tees up another defining moment for Maple Leafs,” Toronto Star, 21 April 2019.
353“A Great Game at the Victoria Rink,” Montreal Gazette, 5 February 1889, 8.
353“Five O’Clock Tea at the Victoria Rink — Other Attractions,” Montreal Gazette, 5 February 1889, 8.
353“A Great Game at the Victoria Rink,” Montreal Gazette, 5 February 1889, 8.
354“Sports and Pastimes,” Dominion Illustrated Monthly, 20 December 1890, 405.
355Studs Terkel, Working, 504–505. Quote from Eric Nesterenko.
356“The Vics after that coveted hockey cup,” Manitoba Free Press, 30 January 1901, 1. 
357“Late Fergus Kyle Had Zest For Life,” Toronto Daily Star, 4 October 1941.
357“Mild weather a great drawback,” Toronto Daily Star, 11 January 1902, 8.
357–8 “The News of Sport,” “Winnipeggers good entertainers,” The Globe, 25 January 1902, 8
362“Stanley Cup is to be cast adrift,” Montreal Daily Star, 18 April 1904.
362“President of C.A.H.L. makes official statement about dropping Stanley Cup,” Montreal Daily Star, 20 April 1904.
362“Eastern hockey situation discussed by experts,” Montreal Daily Star, 13 February 1904, 14.
362D’Arcy Jenish, The Stanley Cup: A Hundred Years Of Hockey At Its Best, 43.
362“The Stanley Cup,” image caption, Montreal Daily Star, 2 December 1903.
362“‘Send back Stanley Cup,’ says Captain Dicky Boon,” Montreal Daily Star, 2 February 1903.
362“Percy Quinn retires and will refuse to referee on Wednesday,” Montreal Daily Star, 3 February 1903.
364Conan Tobias, “Canada’s Greatest Cartoonist, Lou Skuce’s Charmed and Versatile Career.” Taddle Creek magazine, Summer 2016. 
364“To Challenge the Canucks,” Pittsburgh Press, 19 January 1907, 10.
365Royal Brougham, “Highest Honors in Hockey at Stake in Saturday’s Contest,” Seattle Post–Intelligencer, 17 March 1917.
365Royal Brougham, “Seattle Is Beaten By French Wizards In Opening Battle,” Seattle Post–Intelligencer, 18 March 1917.
365“Random Notes on Current Sports,” Toronto Daily Star, 27 March 1917, 13.
368Cam Cole, “Great White North? Not so for NHLers,” Montreal Gazette, 19 February 2015, B5.
368Eric Duhatschek, “Fans shouldn’t worry, On–ice fortunes of Maple Leafs will remain the same,” Globe and Mail, 10 December 2011, S1.
368–9 Michael Traikos, “No Canada: A Series, Tax Disadvantages North of the Border,” Montreal Gazette, 13 April 2016, B3.
370Peter Desbarats and Terry Mosher, The Hecklers, 245.
371Author interview with John Larter, October 2019.
372Author interview with Malcolm Mayes, October 2019.
373Author interview with Vance Rodewalt, October 2019.
374Author interview with Malcolm Mayes, October 2019.
picturing the game

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